A work permit is the permission to take a job within a foreign country. It may also be a permit given to minors allowing them to work legally under child labor laws. Within an industry, a work permit may be required to execute certain functions within a factory outside normal operational tasks (such as maintenance tasks) — in some places they might be called Permit to Work (PTW).
Currently, every EU country has a different process for granting work permits to nationals of non-EU countries. To address this issue, the European Commission began work in 1999 on developing an EU-wide process for the entry of non-EU nationals into the work force. In October 2007, they adopted a proposal to introduce a work permit similar to the United States' "Green Card" program, called the "Blue Card". It is similar to the UK's Highly Skilled Migrant Programme, with the exception that it will require an employment contract in place prior to migration. After two years in the first country, the migrant will be allowed to move and work in another EU country, and can sum the number of years spent in the EU for purposes of residency. This new card will abolish work permits across the EU and centralize the issuing from Brussels.
According to the Federal Migration Service of Russia estimates, Russia's 5 million foreign nationals work today.
In order to work in Russia, foreign citizen must have a work visa (visa for arriving at the order), to obtain a work permit and get on migration registration in the Russian Federal Migration Service bodies.
For foreign citizens arriving without visas (CIS countries except Turkmenistan and Georgia) there is a simplified procedure. The period of temporary stay for them is 90 days but can be extended up to one year from the date of entry into the Russian Federation on presentation of the migration service of the employment contract or a contract of civil-legal nature. That is, a foreigner can obtain a work permit for up to 90 days, and then to extend it after the job. However, it is recommended to immediately impose labor or civil contract and to issue a work permit for the duration of its validity.
Issuance of work permits is carried out taking into account the established quota. The quota is divided by region, Russia and the integrated vocational qualification groups.
Foreigners and stateless persons can be employed in Ukraine after obtaining an appropriate permit. These requirements are established by article 42 of the Law of Ukraine "On Employment". State Employment Service of Ukraine is the main authority to issue work permit.
In general, the United States does not require work permits for adult citizens. However, certain aliens are required to have an Employment Authorization Document from the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
The federal government of the United States does not require work permits or proof-of-age certificates for a minor to be employed. However, the possession of an age certificate constitutes a good faith effort to comply with minimum age requirements of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The United States Department of Labor will issue a "certificate of age" if the minor employee's state does not issue them, or if the minor is requested by his or her employer to provide one. Several states are not listed in 29 C.F.R. 570.9(a), such as Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, and Utah, and thus their certificates may not meet the requirements of 29 C.F.R. 570.5(b) as being evidence of compliance with the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Many states also require them for workers of certain ages. In some states, for example New Jersey, permits are only required for minors 14 and 15 years old, while others such as Massachusetts require, at least in theory, work permits for all minors until they turn 18 years of age. In some states, enforcement is strict. Permits are usually issued through the school system the minor attends, and typically at a minimum is conditioned on enrollment in high school with regular attendance (no chronic absenteeism, tardiness, or truancy). Some states such as New York and Indiana require high school students with part-time jobs to maintain a certain grade point average. Minors who are working are usually restricted in the number of hours each day or week they are permitted to work as well as the types of jobs they may hold.
The immigration in Turkey is regulated by the General Directorate of Immigration Management (Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü) under the supervision of the Ministry of Interior while work permits are delivered by the General Directorate of Labor Immigration (Uluslararası İşgücü Genel Müdürlüğü) under the supervision of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığı). All applications for both residence permit and work permit are made through online government portals. The residence permit application is made through " "e-Residence" (e-İkamet) while Turkish work permit application are made through e-Government (Turkey) (e-Devlet).
General Work Visa/Permit - The basis of a general work visa/permit is that a firm offer of employment has been made by a prospective employer to a foreigner after such employer has unsuccessfully exploited the local labour market in attempting to procure the needed skills, experiences or qualifications equivalent of such foreigner.
Critical Skills Work Visa/Permit - A critical skills work permit may be issued to a foreigner who possesses critical skills or qualifications and is able to demonstrate with supporting documentation in the form of testimonials, publications. This is based on a list published by the Department of Home Affairs in South Africa called the Critical Skills List A letter of motivation from an authoritative body to substantiate the benefits that those skills will bring to South Africa. This critical skills work permit is granted for up to five years and may be renewed for a further period, if required. This visa type replaces the previously issued Quota Work Permit and the Exceptional Skills Work Permit.
Intra-Company Transfer Work Visa/Permit - An intra company transfer work permit is issued to a foreigner who is normally deployed or seconded to South African branch, subsidiary or associate office of a corporate entity aboard. There are strict controls to ensure that the foreigner remains employed in his or her specific position during the tour of duty. This type of visa is only valid for two years, and often no extension is possible. Also, any applicant must have first worked for a minimum of 6 months in the employ of the company’s foreign office before applying to relocate and immigrate to the South African branch.
Canada work permits are issued under the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) by Canada immigration and Citizenship.
The TFWP has four streams: high-skilled workers, low-skilled workers, the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program, and the Live-In Caregiver Program.
In Singapore, the work permit process is managed by the Ministry of Manpower. There are several kinds of work permits, and the type accorded generally depends on the salary range of the position, as well as on skills (including education), work experience, and the type of job being applied for. These work permit types include the Employment Pass (monthly salary of at least S$4,000), S Pass (monthly salary of at least S$2,800), and "Work Permit" (generally for unskilled workers).
For skilled personnel such as confinement nannies from Malaysia, the work permit is short-term. Employers or appointed agencies are able to hire Malaysian confinement nanny by applying the work permit either online or manually. The validity period can be up to 16 weeks with reference to the birth time of the child. There are two situations which the pass can be extended. It is either when the required employment period is longer than the issued permit or when the confinement nanny leaves Singapore during her employment period.
Several different types of visas are available for immigrants.